The Our Curriculum Matters website has one of the most comprehensive bibliographies on Place-Based Education. 

                                 - David Sobel, Antioch University New England




Bellafante, G. (2020, July 17). Schools Beat Earlier Plagues With Outdoor Classes. We Should, Too. New York Times. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from

Duffort, L. (2020, July 27). When students return to school, some educators say – why not head outside? VTDigger. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from

Kesson, K. (2020, August 11). Vermont Schools Embrace Learning Outside. VT Kids Magazine. Retrieved August 16, 2020, from

Nierenberg, A. (2020, October 27). Classrooms Without Walls, and Hopefully Covid. New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2020, from

Peer Associates. (2020, September 2). School's Out(doors): Place-based Education (PBE) Responds to COVID-19 and Beyond. (Download PDF Booklet).

Sharp, D. (2020, December 27). Raise your mittens: Outdoor learning continues into winter. Valley News. Retrieved December 24, 2020, from Anderson, S.K. (2017). Bringing school to life: Place-based education across the curriculum. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield.




Anderson, S.K. (2017). Bringing school to life: Place-based education across the curriculum. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield.
NOTE: This is a useful book that outlines a K-8 progression of how a school could embed studies in its local place.

NOTE: This is a useful book that outlines a K-8 progression of how a school could embed studies in its local place.

Berger, R. (2003). An Ethic of Excellence: Building a Culture of Craftsmanship with Students. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
NOTE: Not about PBE by name but an inspirational and important story about a teacher in Massachusetts who oriented his students’ work towards the community. Berger now works for Expeditionary Learning. (

Brooke, R. (2003). Rural voices: Place-conscious education and the teaching of writing. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
NOTE: Great book if you are interested in writing and PBE.

Demarest, A. (2015). Reading the World, Not Just the Words. Green Teacher, 106, Spring 2015, p.3-8.

Elder, J. (1998). Teaching at the edge.  In J. Elder (Ed.), Stories in the land: A place-based environmental education anthology (pp. 1-13).  In Nature Literacy Series.  Great Barrington, MA:  The Orion Society.
NOTE: Check out all of Orion website. This whole book is on-line; and their education section has a lot of useful material.

Gruenewald, D. (2003a). The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place. Educational Researcher, 32(4), 3-12.
NOTE: Everything he writes is good. This is a foundational piece on the “critical edge” of place-based education. He recently changed his name to David Greenwood.

Gruenewald, D. & Smith, G. (Eds) (2008).  Place-based education in the global age: Local Diversity. Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
NOTE: Two great authors host a rather erudite but useful “discussion/guest authors” of PBE.

Harvard Graduate School of Education for the Rural Trust. (1999a). Living and learning in rural schools and communities: A report to the Annenburg Rural Challenge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Harvard Graduate School of Education for the Rural Trust. (1999b). Living and learning in rural schools and communities: Lessons from the field. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
NOTE: These two books are unfortunately out of print—but contain wonderful information and stories about the early work of the Annenburg Foundation’s early work in place-based education.

Monke, L. (2006).  Unplugged schools.  Orion, 26(5), 18-25.
NOTE: great article. Source of Berniski’s phrase: “kids need a rock to stand on.”

Perrone, V. (1998). Teacher with a heart: Reflections on Leonard Covello and community. New York: Teachers College Press.
NOTE: An inspirational story about a principal—Leonard Covello— in NYC in the 30s. Embedded in the progressive education it provides a great story of an inclusive, community-based school.

Rosenberg, J., & Nabhan, G. (1997). Where ancient stories guide children home.  Natural History, 7, 263-268.
NOTE: a favorite article of mine; origin of the phrase “knowing where the turtles are.”

Rural School and Community Trust. (n.d.). Rural Roots: eNewsletter for Rural Educators. Retrieved September 12, 2005 from

Shelton, J. (2005). Consequential learning: A public approach to better schools. Montgomery, AL: NewSouth Books.
NOTE: An interesting book about a particular program in the south. Shelton is a great proponent of authentic work in school.

Smith, G. (2002a). Place-based education: Learning to be where we are. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(8), 584-594.
NOTE: An early inspiration to many educators, Smith provides a foundational, useful understanding of place-based education. Great.

Smith, G. (2002b). Going Local.  Educational Leadership, 60(1), 30-34.

Smith, G & Sobel, D. (2010a). Place- and community-based education in schools. New York, NY: Routledge.

Smith, G & Sobel, D. (2010b). Bring it on home. Educational Leadership, 68(1), 38-43.

Sobel, D. (2003). Place-based education: Connecting classrooms and communities. Great Barrington, MA: The Orion Society.
NOTE: Sobel is a master of telling powerful narrative about this practice.

Umphreys, M. (2005) The Power of Community-Centered Education:
Teaching as a Craft
of Place. Rowman and Littlefield
NOTE: This is one of my favorite books about PBE. It is weighed towards the Humanities but relevant to all in terms of how to orchestrate authentic research and participation in community.

Vascellaro, S. (2011). Out of the classroom and into the world: Learning from fieldtrips, educating from experience, and unlocking the potential of our students and teachers. New York, NY: The New Press.
NOTE: This book does not use the name place-based education, yet its avoidance of academic jargon is refreshing. It tells the stories of his teaching both young learners and to-be teachers and highlights the many ways to learn outside the classroom.

Wigginton, E. (1985). Sometimes a shining moment: The foxfire experience. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.
NOTE: Although inappropriate behaviour severed this man’s credibility—he still is an important “pioneer” in getting kids out of the classroom and doing authentic research. Great read.

Williams, B. (1998).  The genius of place.  In V. Perrone (Ed.), Toward place and community (pp. 62-78).  Rural Challenge Research and Evaluation Report.  Cambridge, MA:  Harvard College of Education. 


New New! Manaugh, G. (2020, February 1). 'It was like a movie': the high school students who uncovered a toxic waste scandal. The Guardian. Retrieved October 12, 2020, from

Smith, G. (2011).  Place-based and sustainability education at Al Kennedy High SchoolChildren, Youth and Environments, 8(1), 35-36. 
Greg Smith and David Sobel are both masters at telling the stories of how teachers implement place-based education. All of their writing contains rich narratives about what it looks like when teachers learn to “engage the local.” In this article, Greg Smith tells the story of the Al Kennedy school in Oregon. The school is organized around the themes of sustainability. Greg shares this quote from a student:

If you come to this school, you’ll not be a follower, you’ll be a leader. That’s pretty much prepping me for when I go out in the real world. I’ll not be some person following around others; I’m going to be a leader out there saying, “hey, this is what’s going on, this is what we need to do, let’s get on it.” 

Wu, J. (2010, August 18). Teaching out of the box: Interdisciplinary program offers alternative to classroom education. Boston Globe. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from

An interdisciplinary study in Lexington, Massachusetts. One of the students commented:

I like to be able to focus class on my own questions instead of being told what I should know,’’ said Angela Rossi, 16, a junior at Leominster High School. “No one ever entertained that for me, it was always, "There’s no time, we’re moving on. [She added,] in studying rivers and revolutions this past week, math was not only essential but also less painful. Rossi said she was able to draw upon her understanding of river ecology from transcendentalism in literature to shed light on the math and science principles she normally found daunting.

Demarest, A. (Special Issue Ed.) (2016). Place-based Education: A Toolkit for the 21st Century. Green Teacher, 110, Summer 2016.
This special issue, edited and with an introduction by Amy Demarest, has a wide variety of examples of the different ways teachers have incorporated the local place into their curriculum.

Foderaro, L. (2011, October 7). Unleashing the scientist in the student. New York Times. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
A good story about an urban field experience. 

Jenson-Elliott, C. (2011). A canyon as classroomUnboxed: A Journal of Adult Learning in Schools, Issue 7. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
A great story about a teacher’s experience using a “Canyon as Classroom.”

Kaufmann, N. (2010, November 7). Biddeford, Maine: Roots and Routes. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from
A group of students join with the community to celebrate their town of Biddeford Maine.

Kissling, M. T. (2016.) Place-Based Social Studies Teacher Education: Learning to Teach for Ecological Citizenship While Investigating Local Waste Issues. In A.R. Crowe, A. Cuenca (Eds.), Rethinking Social Studies Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 321-338). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Kissling, M. T. & Barton A. C. (2013). Interdisciplinary Study of the Local Power Plant: Cultivating Ecological Citizens. Social Studies Research and Practice, 8(3), 128-142.

Kissling, M. T. & Rogers, S. (2014) Connecting economy and environment in social studies classrooms. Social Studies Review, 51(2), 21-33.

Renner, A., Brew, B., and Proctor, C. (2011-2012 Winter) Plotting inequalities, building resistanceRethinking Schools, 26(2). Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
A provocative article about using high school math to explore – and address—issues of social justice.  The whole story is not on the Rethinking Schools website but you can find it elsewhere. 

Winerip, M. (2012, February 12). A field trip to a strange new place: Second grade visits the parking garage. New York Times. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
Wonderful story about young kids taking a field trip to a parking garage! 




Casey, E. S. (1996). How to get from space to place in a fairly short stretch of time: Phenomenological Prolegomena.  In S. Feld & K. Basso (Eds.), Senses of place (pp. 13-52). Sante Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

Curtin, A., & Linehan, D. (2002). Where boys are:  Teenagers, masculinity and a sense of place. Irish Geography, 35(1), 63-74.

Feld, S., & Basso, K. (Eds.) (1996). Senses of place. Sante Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.
Feld and Basso is a great book—more theoretical but very provocative-Casey is the most “post-modern” chapter in the book.

Orion Society

Poetics of place: Connecting people and places features the work of Steve Glazer and the joys of questing:


Engel, B. S., & Martin, A. C. (Eds.). (2005). Holding values: What we mean by progressive education. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education.  New York: Macmillan.
IF you have never read John Dewey in the original--give it a try!


Hart, R.  (1997). Children’s participation: The theory and practice of involving young citizens in community development and environmental care.  London: Earthscan.

Orr, D. W. (1992). Ecological literacy: Education and the transition to a postmodern world. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
NOTE: Foundational book on environmental education and the definition of ecological literacy.

Smith, G., & Williams, D. (1999). Ecological education in action: On weaving education, culture, and the environment. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Sobel, D. (1996). Beyond ecophobia: Reclaiming the heart in nature education. Great Barrington, MA: The Orion Society.

Leopold, A. (1949). A sand county almanac and sketches here and there. London: Oxford University Press.

Louv, R. (2005). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficient disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
NOTE: This book got a huge public response and generated interest in giving kids more time in natural environments.


Bigelow, B. & Swinehart, T. (Eds.) (2014). A people’s curriculum for the earth: Teaching climate change and the environmental crisis. WI: Rethinking Schools.
NOTE: Five years in the making, a collection of articles, role-plays simulations, stories, poems, and graphics to help breath life into teaching about the environmental crisis.

Judson, G. A. (2018). Walking curriculum: Evoking wonder and developing sense of place (K-12). (Self-published.)
I wasn’t sure where to put this lovely little book that gives teacher numerous ideas on how to take walks with their students and learn many things.

Stone M. K. & Barlow, Z. (Eds.) (2005). Ecological Literacy: Educating our Children for a Sustainable World. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.

Stone, M. K. & The Center for Ecoliteracy. (2009). Smart by nature: Schooling for sustainability. Healdsburg, CA: Watershed Media.
NOTE: A great resource that deals with food, ecological design, and sustainability. Useful portraits of numerous projects.

Warren, K., Sakofs, M. & Hunt, J. (Eds.) The Theory of Experiential Education: A collection of articles addressing the historical, philosophical, social, and psychological foundations of Experiential Education. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.

Greg Smith recommends Bob Gliner’s films ( Lessons from the Real World, Schools that Change Communities, Growing up Green, Barefoot College, and Communities as Classrooms (his most recent film about his effort to introduce PBE to four schools in El Salvador).


Note that a lot of the SL literature is K-16.

Cairn, R., & Kielsmeier, J. (1991). Growing hope: A sourcebook on integrating youth services into the school curriculum. Roseville, MN:  National Youth Leadership Council.

Neal, B. (2007) Beyond the Canned Food Drive. Teaching Tolerance, 32, 33-37.

Claus, J., & Ogden, C. (Eds.). (1999). Service learning for youth empowerment and social change. New York: Peter Lang.

Dubel, M. (2006). Of place and education: One intern’s story. Community Works Journal, 7(3), 7-8, 33, 36.
Check out more favorites from this great online journal.

Harkins, T., Kaufman, B., & Rudoff, F. (2005). Kids as planners: A guide to strengthening students, schools and communities through service (2nd ed.). Lewiston, ME: Kids Consortium.

Kahne, J., & Westheimer, J. (1996). In the service of what?  The politics of service learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(9), 593-599.

Wade, R. C. (Ed.). (1997).  Community service-learning: A guide to including service in the public school curriculum. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Westheimer, J., & Kahne, J. (2003). Reconnecting education to democracy: Democratic dialogues.  Phi Delta Kappan, 85(1), 9-14.


Comber, B. (2016). Literacy, place, and pedagogies of possibility. NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.

Friere, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Friere, P. (1998). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Friere, P. (2004). Pedagogy of indignation. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

Furman, G., & Gruenewald, D. (2004). Expanding the landscape of social justice: A critical ecological analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 47-76.




A great summary of place-based practice including a very thorough list of Citizen Science resources (p. 14-22) in Chawla, L., & White, A. (2018). Place-based education and citizen science: Resources for learning beyond the classroom. The NAMTA Journal, 43(3), 4-22.  


There are numerous resources available for teachers about climate change. We have edited a lot of these choices on the WatershED Matters website in the Global Resources section:

David Sobel presents a thoughtful discussion on the need to pay attention to the age-appropriateness of topics such as climate change:

At a conference for teachers in Vermont, Spring 2012, we created a “Ladder of Learning” in response to this article: Sobel, D. (2007). Climate change meets ecophobia. Connect, 21(2), 14-21. See the ladder and other information related to climate change on the WatershED Matters Blog:


National Farm to School Network:

Center for Eco-Literacy—lots on their website about the amazing work this group has done in schools and communities.

A wonderful new book that takes a wide view of the many wonders of growing food with young people is Learning Gardens and Sustainability Education: Bringing Life to Schools and Schools to Life by Dilafruz Williams and Jonathan Brown (Routledge, 2010)

A great resource that deals with food, ecological design and sustainability is Smart By Nature: Schooling for Sustainability by Michael K. Stone with Center for Ecoliteracy (Watershed Media, 2009)


Infrastructure: A Field Guide to the Industrial Landscape by Brian Hayes (2005). Not a typical school subject but I had a grad-student once that became intrigued with the idea of studying infrastructure with her students. She was inspired by Hayes who wrote: “There is something sad about a society in which large numbers of people don’t understand the basic substrate of their own world…without a sense of how materials and energy flow through an industrial economy, you miss something basic about the world you live in.”



Although the deeper place-based work crosses many disciplines, this section is devoted to specific subject-based studies. This section is under construction.


NCSS Standards:

A Place for Stories with William Cronon:

Selwyn, D. (2010). Following the threads: Bringing inquiry research into the classroom. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Flow of History: 

Umphrey, M. (2005). The power of community-centered education: Teaching as a craft of place. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield.


Buxton, C. A., & Provenzo, E. F. (2012). Place-Based Science Teaching and Learning: 40 Activities for K-8 Classrooms. Los Angeles CA: Sage Publications.


Benson, C., & Christian, S. (Eds.) (2002). Writing to make a difference: Classroom projects for community change. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Rous, E. (2000). Literature and the land: Reading and writing for environmental literacy, 7-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Winter, D., & Robbins, S. (2005). Writing our communities: Local learning and public culture. National Council of Teachers of English and National Writing Project.


Gutstein, E., & Peterson, B. (Eds.) (2013). Rethinking mathematics: Teaching social justice by the numbers. Rethinking Schools Publications.

Renner, A., Brew, B., & Proctor, C. (2011-2012 Winter) Plotting inequalities, building resistance. Rethinking Schools, 26(2). Retrieved September 10, 2012.



Ancharski, N. (2006). The nature of cities: Urban roots and other adventures.  Community Works Journal, 8(1), 35-36.

Barnhardt, R. (2008).  Creating a place for indigenous knowledge in education: The Alaska Native Knowledge Network.  In D. Gruenewald & G. Smith (Eds.), Place-based education in the global age: Local diversity (pp. 113-133). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor and Francis Group.

Gruenewald, D. (2003a). The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place. Educational Researcher, 32(4), 3-12.
NOTE: Everything he writes is good. He recently changed his name to David Greenwood.

Gruenewald, D. (2003b). Foundations of place: A multidisciplinary framework for place-conscious education.  American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 619-654.

Gruenewald, D. (2006). Place-based education: Grounding culturally responsive teaching in geographic diversity. Democracy and Education, 16(2), 24-32.

Lieberman, G., & Hoody, L. (1998). Closing the achievement gap: Using the environment as an integrating text for learning. San Diego: State Education and Environment Roundtable. 

Howley, C., Harmon, H., & Leopold, G. (1996). Rural scholars or bright rednecks? Aspirations for a sense of place among rural youth in Appalachia. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 12(3), 150-160.

Theobald, P., & Curtiss, J. (2000). Communities as curricula.  Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 15(1), 106-111.

Resources related to particular places or particular kinds of places

The Lake Champlain Basin

New York City!

Teaching About the Hudson River 




Beane, J. (1997). Curriculum integration: Designing the core of democratic education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Doll, W. (1993). A post-modern perspective on curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.

Henderson, J. G., & Kesson, K. R. (2004). Curriculum wisdom: Educational decisions in democratic societies.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson.

Larmer, J., Mergendoller, J., & Boss, S. (2015). Setting the standard for project-based learning: a proven approach to rigorous classroom instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Newmann, F. M., Carmichael, D. L., & King, M. B. (2016).  Authentic intellectual work: Improving teaching for rigorous learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Pinar, W. (2004). What is curriculum theory? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe J. (1998). Understanding by design (1st ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Wink, J. (2005). Critical pedagogy: Notes from the field (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


Rural School and Community Trust. (n.d.). Place-based learning portfolio workbook. Available from



Apple, M. W., & Beane, J. A. (1995). The case for democratic schools. In J. A. Beane & M.W. Apple (Eds.), Democratic schools (pp. 1-25). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum.

Daniels, H., Bizar, M., & Zemelman, S. (2001). Rethinking high schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.

Greene, M. (1995). Releasing the imagination: Essays on education, the arts, and social change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Littky, D., & Grabelle, S. (2004). The big picture: Education is everyone’s business. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

McLaren, P. (2003). Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education (4th ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Meier, D. (1995). The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small school in Harlem. Boston: Beacon Press.

Meier, D., & Wood, G. (Eds.). (2004). Many children left behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act is damaging our children and our schools. Boston: Beacon Press.

Schlecty, P. (2009) Leading for Learning: How to Transform Schools into Learning Organizations.  San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. 

Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J., & Kleiner, A. (2000). Schools that learn: A fifth discipline fieldbook for educators, parents, and everyone who cares about education. New York: Doubleday.

Tyack, D., & Tobin, W. (1994).  The “grammar” of schooling:  Why has it been so hard to change?  American Educational Research Journal, 31(3), 453-479.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe J. (2007). Schooling by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Ayers, W. (1998). To teach: The journey of a teacher. New York: Teachers College Press.

Brooks, J., & Brooks, M. (1993). In Search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Brooks, J. G., Libresco, A. S., & Plonczak, I. (2007). Spaces of liberty: Battling the new soft bigotry of NCLB. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(10), 749-756.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Sykes, G. (Eds.). (1999). Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Perrone, V. (1991). A letter to teachers: Reflections on schooling and the art of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Perrone, V. (1998). Teacher with a heart: Reflections on Leonard Covello and community. New York: Teachers College Press.

Stevenson, C. (2002). Teaching ten to fourteen year olds (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Brown.

Wells, G. (Ed.). (2001). Action, talk and text: Learning and teaching through inquiry. New York: Teachers College Press.

Whitehead, A. N. (1929). The aims of education. New York: Macmillan Company.


Cook-Sather, A. (2002). Authorizing students’ perspectives: Toward trust, dialogue and change in education. Educational Researcher, 31(4), 3-14.

Beaudoin, N. (2005). Elevating Student Voice: How to Enhance Participation, Citizenship and Leadership.  Larchmont, NY:  Eye on Education.

de los Reyes, E., & Gozemba, P. (Eds.). (2002). Pockets of hope. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey.

Fletcher, A. (2005). Meaningful student involvement guide to students as partners in school change.  Seattle, WA: HumanLinks Foundation.

Nieto, S. (1994).  Lessons from students on creating a chance to dream.  Harvard Educational Review, 64(4), 392-426.


DuFour, R. (2004). What is a professional learning community? Educational Leadership, 61(8), 6-11.


Berger, R. (2003) An ethic of excellence: Building a culture of craftsmanship with students. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Little, J.W., Gearhart, M., Curry, M., & Kafka, J. (2003). Looking at student work for teacher learning, teacher community, and school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(3), 184-192.

Moulds, P. (2003).  Rich tasks:  Open-ended tasks involve students in connecting their learning to the real world.  Educational Leadership, 61(4), 75-78.


Bank Street Occasional Papers: Claiming the promise of place-based education (#33, with guest editors Roberta Altman, Susan Stires, and Susan Weseen.

Duffin, M., Chawla, L., Sobel, D., & PEER Associates. (2005). Place-based education and academic achievement. Available at

Jennings, N., Swidler, S., & Koliba, C. (2005). Place-based education in the standards-based reform era--Conflict or complement?  American Journal of Education, 112(1), 44-65.

Powers, A. (2004). An evaluation of four place-based education programs. The Journal of Environmental Edcuation, 35(4), 17-32. 















General PBE:


















































































































Service Learning:

















Big Questions/Real Places:















































































 The Nature of Schools: